ojjdp relative rate index

There are several possible reasons for these racial disparities at the point of arrest. Data Items Rate of Occurrence - White Youth Rate of Occurrence - Minority Youth Relative Rate Index 1. Instances of contact with Caucasian juveniles 2. Advocates for Children and Youth builds a strong Maryland by advancing policies and programs to ensure children and families of every race, ethnicity, and place of birth achieve their full potential. Relative Rate Index and how it is used in Multnomah County's Juvenile System. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is a helpful way to compare the experiences of different groups of youth within the juvenile justice system. Definitions: Relative Rate Index (RRI) compares the arrest rate for a particular racial group with the total arrest rate for all juveniles. Data below shows the trend data for the District of Columbia. This method compares the (rate) of activity for each major stage of the juvenile justice system of minority youth compared to white (majority) youth . Finally, the RRI for the waiver decision indicates that, overall, little racial disparity was found at this decision point in 2010; minority youth charged with a robbery offense were equally likely to be judicially waived to criminal court as white youth. Whenever groups are treated equally – both will have an RRI equal to “1.” Definitions: Relative Rate Index (RRI) compares the arrest rate for a particular racial group with the total arrest rate for all juveniles. 5633, Section 223(a) .....58 . comparison of the two rates provides a relative rate index or RRI. Relative Rate Index ... • OJJDP Model Programs Guide community indicators • Self-report data on alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use • Community-level income data • Community-level unemployment rate • Community-level demographic data • Area-level school attendance data . online compliance reporting tool, separately from this application and no later than April 2, 2018. The "relative rate index" (RRI) is OJJDP's identified method to compare rates. Footnotes: This pattern held for black youth, but not for AIAN and AHPI youth; the detention RRI for AIAN and AHPI youth was 0.7 in 2010, indicating that AIAN and AHPI youth referred to juvenile court for a robbery offense were less likely to be securely detained than were white youth. ! Juvenile Arrests 78.18 318.11 4.07 3. Data Source: Nationwide, American Indian y… Or it could be that even when both groups commit crimes at similar rates and these crimes are equally likely to be reported to law enforcement, law enforcement is more likely to arrest minority youth for their robbery offenses. It is also important to study, through the use of additional quantitative and qualitative data, the factors and mechanisms that contribute to the observed disproportion at particular contact points within the juvenile justice system. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is a helpful way to compare the experiences of different groups of youth within the juvenile justice system. However, the field has moved beyond looking at racial and ethnic disparities solely from the perspective of overrepresentation of youth of color relative to White youth. Cases Involving Secure Detention 13.11 17.23 1.31 6. Which county is performing better on reducing teen dropouts? Note that for RRI values less than 1, the data is interpreted as 1 divided by the RRI. Appendices The OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book added new features to its National Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Databook This application presents the national DMC data for the juvenile justice system and their Relative Rate Index Matrices that quantify levels of racial disparity introduced at various decision points within the system. Arrest data from Maryland State Police. The court referral RRI for AIAN and AHPI youth (1.4 for each) indicates that this decision point brings a disproportionate number of these youth into the juvenile justice system. She is an expert in evidenced-based programs, and serves as the officer in charge for OJJDP’s Model Programs Guide and Program Manager for NIJ’s CrimeSolutions.gov. As outlined by the OJJDP DMC Reduction Model, the identification of disproportionality occurs in four steps: defining the contact points, identifying data sources, collecting data and calculating and interpreting Relative Rate Index (RRI) values. Juvenile Violent Crime Index Arrest Rates, 2011 Juvenile Violent Crime Index Arrest Rates, 2012 0 to 75 75 to 150 150 to 250 250 or above Data not available Violent Crime Index arrests per 100,000 juveniles ages 10–17, 2011 0 to 75 (7 states) 75 to 150 (18 states) 150 to 250 (16 states) 250 or above (8 states) Data not available (2 states) The relative rate index (RRI) is a coefficient calculated using four numbers: 1. Funding through OJJDP's Formula Grants program (Title II) helps states address juvenile delinquency and supports improvements to the juvenile justice system. Note: Detained and committed. Some decisions (those with Relative Rate Indices equal to 1.0) neither increase nor decrease disparity but maintain the level of disparity that resulted from prior decisions. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is a measure of the rate of racial disparity between white youth and youth of color at a particular stage in the system. In 2010 minority youth (RRI of 1.1) were somewhat more likely to be referred to juvenile court for a robbery offense than were white youth. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is used by OJJDP to compare level of contact with the juvenile justice system as experienced by different groups of youth (OJJDP, n.d.b). Divide the number of referrals of white youth by the white population. The federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency … How to Calculate the RRI? In 24 states, less than 1 percent of youth are American Indian. In all, in 2010 few decisions made in the juvenile justice system processing of robbery offense cases were racially disparate. One of the many possible reasons for this pattern could be that the screening decision used to petition these cases may have sent a greater proportion of legally weak or less serious cases of minority youth to an adjudication hearing and these cases were screened out at the adjudication decision. online compliance reporting tool, separately from this application and no later than April 2, 2018. Population data from Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) , Easy Access to Juvenile Populations: 1990-2018. Due to the presence of so few Caucasian juveniles in the juvenile justice system in the District of Columbia, it is impossible to employ statistical procedures to understand DMC using the RRI method. Example: RRIs for Referrals to Juvenile Court (2012 Missouri Data) 1. What is an RRI? rates with the juvenile justice system, at which decision points, to what extent, and for which racial or ethnic groups. “-” = Numbers too low to calculate rates. Implementing the Relative Rate Index Calculation: A Step-by-Step Approach to Identifying Disproportionate Minority Contact within the Juvenile Justice System. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is used by OJJDP to compare level of contact with the juvenile justice system as experienced by different groups of youth (OJJDP, n.d.b). OJJDP Relative Rate Index (RRI) to measure DMC decision points beyond the arrest stage. The use of the relative rate index is described in more detail later. The matrices present major decision points and compare processing “rates” by race and ethnicity through the relative rate index. resources have been added to the SBB: A new Data Snapshot draws on national arrest estimates to document declines in juvenile arrests through 2019.; A new FAQ showing high school dropout rates by state has been added to the education section under the Population Characteristics. Refer to Juvenile Court 0.00 0.00 --4. This RRI of 7.0 means that the minority youth arrest rate was about 600% greater than the white arrest rate. State-by-state analysis of American Indian youth is hampered by their small number and attendant small percentage of the population in many states. Whenever groups are treated equally – both will have an RRI equal to “1.” This is true even when one group of youth is larger than the other group of youth. ; A new Data Snapshot draws on data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to document the trends … The RRI provides a single index number that indicates the extent to which the volume of that form of . 2 Instances of contact with minority juveniles 4. The Relative Rate Index (RRI), a formula that OJJDP uses, is one method of tracking disparity. The RRI for the adjudication decision indicates that these decisions actually helped somewhat to reduce the overall level of racial disparity in the processing of robbery offense referrals by the system given that the RRI for minority youth was less than 1.0. For additional background on the calculation method, see this excerpt from a technical assistance manual developed by … OJJDP Relative Rate Index (RRI) to measure DMC decision points beyond the arrest stage. The RRI for referral to juvenile court for minority youth overall indicates the level of racial disparity in the juvenile justice system for minorities increased slightly as a result of this decision. Admissions of Youth <18 to Adult Prison, 2003 White African 5The national RRI of 0.9 reported in the National DMC Databook (http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/dmcdb/index.html), shows that with the exception of Asian, Hawaiian, or Paciic Islander youth, minority youth are not being diverted or probated relative to white youth. 9) OJJDP (2014). The relative rate index (RRI)represents the relative volume of minority juveniles to the volume of majority juveniles (adjusted by population) at stages in the juvenile justice system. Information gathered from the JCMSC is used to create the Relative Rate Index (RRI) Tables below. The RRI for the detention decision indicates that minority youth were as likely to be securely detained as were white youth in 2010. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), “At its simplest, the RRI is a means of comparing the rates of juvenile justice contact experienced by different groups of youth.” For additional background on the calculation method, see this excerpt from a technical assistance manual developed by … Using the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) criteria, Oregon Relative Rate Index (RRI) values for referrals of both African American and Native American youth are the areas that rise to priority levels using all of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP… And some decisions (those with Relative Rate Indices less than 1.0) reduce the level of disparity in the system. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is one indicator of racial and ethnic disparities. The arrest RRI for American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN) youth (0.6) and Asian, Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander (AHPI) youth (0.5) indicates that their arrest rate was far below that of white youth, signifying an arrest disparity for these two groups that brings a disproportionately smaller number of AIAN and AHPI youth into the juvenile justice system for a robbery offense. Again, many factors could have lead to this racially-disparate decision. Definitions: The Relative Rate Index compares the arrest rate for White youth with the arrest rate for African-American youth. The "relative rate index" (RRI) is OJJDP's identified method to compare rates. With this background, we can review the set of Relative Rate Indices (RRI) that capture disproportionate minority contact (DMC) in the juvenile justice system’s handling of robbery cases in 2010. Please note, there is no national data collection specifically designed to monitor vital signs on racial and ethnic fairness at the state-level. To calculate the RRI, the arrest rate for African-American youth is divided by the arrest rate for White youth. Population of at-risk Caucasian youths 3. 2 5 OJJDP-2015-3689 OJJDP FY 2015 Title II Formula Grants Program ... OJJDP is committed to continued evolution of our nation’s juvenile justice system to a Note: Detained and committed. Moreover, the RRI … This pattern held for black youth whose RRI was also 1.1. Implementing Relative Rate Index Calculation. Source: OJJDP Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook, 2008. Ultimately, state and local users of the matrices will need to examine the rates of each racial/ethnic group and consider what an "acceptable rate" is in addition to the relative rate. Once adjudicated, the RRIs indicate that minority youth charged with a robbery offense were less likely to be placed out of the home than white youth, and equally likely to be placed on probation as were adjudicated white youth in 2010. Admissions of Youth <18 to Adult Prison, 2003 White African The decision point that contributed the most to the overall level of disparity in the system is the point of arrest. plans, compliance and Relative Rate Index (RRI) data, and supporting documentation for the period October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017, electronically to OJJDP’s . According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), “At its simplest, the RRI is a means of … An index value of 1.00 would indicate that the rates were essentially the same. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) developed the relative rate index (RRI) to measure and monitor DMC at each of nine contact points in the juvenile justice system: 1) arrest; 2) referral to court; 3) diversion (includes informal probation); 4) secure detention; 5) charges (petition) filed; 6) found delinquent; 7) placed on formal probation; 8) placed in secure correctional facility; and … online compliance reporting tool, separately from this application and no later than April 2, 2018. (2009). She authored two chapters of the OJJDP DMC Technical Assistance Manual and worked with Feyerherm to design the relative rate index (RRI) reporting system for state DMC coordinators. Each relative rate is dependent on the decision point that comes directly before what is being measured. The arrest rate is calculated by dividing the number of arrests for each group by the population of that group. Virginia has determined that DMC does exist among its juvenile justice population. The RRI is represented as a number, and is calculated for each minority group (Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, Black and Hispanic). Are there more black or hispanic children in poverty in my county? comparison of the data captured by using national data collections to calculate the relative rate index (RRI) and the disproportionate representation index (DRI). Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Shelby County's Juvenile Court Dashboard. In this instance the index is thousand (1,000) youth for Black or African-American youth), the relative rate index (318.11 divided by 78.18 = 4.07) and an indication whether that index is statistically significant (i.e., could it have occurred by a random process). Roughly 90 percent of American Indian juveniles live in just 26 states. Defines the rate for non-White groups in terms of the rate for the White group. RRIs are designed to be comparable across sites, no matter the size of the jurisdiction, similar to the way percentages are used. plans, compliance and Relative Rate Index (RRI) data, and supporting documentation for the period October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017, electronically to OJJDP’s . The funds also help states address the core requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act: deinstitutionalization of status offenders, separation of juvenil… How are three neighboring counties in Texas doing on reducing teen births across three age categories. The cumulative disparity experienced by minority youth at any decision point in the juvenile justice system is a combination of the disparities introduced at prior decision points and that added by the decision point of interest. This RRI of 7.0 means that the minority youth arrest rate was about 600% greater than the white arrest rate. For example, an RRI of 2.0 means that members of that group are two times more likely to be arrested than the total population. Use this view if you have questions like: Definitions: If the processing rate for one race/ethnic category of youth is … The data provided in the graphs below are specific to Shelby County and the Juvenile Court of Memphis and Shelby County (JCMSC) for 2019. The Relative Rate Index of the arrest decision point was significantly greater than 1.0 when comparing the overall minority arrest rate to that of white youth. Note that for RRI values less than 1, the data is interpreted as 1 divided by the RRI. Studying the set of Relative Rate Indices for a specific decision process enables us to see the unique contributions made by each decision point to the overall disparity in the system. For example, DMC Relative Rate Index Matrices could be developed separately for various types of juvenile offenders (e.g., males and females, young and old) or various locations (e.g., urban, suburban, and rural areas) to see if the disparity patterns are linked more strongly to some person offense cases than to others. In addition, considerations of the magnitude of the various RRIs highlight the decision points where the contribution to disparity was greatest in the processing of robbery cases in 2010 (e.g., arrest and, to a lesser degree, court referral) and can help to prioritize the points at which further study is most warranted. Data below shows the trend data for the District of Columbia. However, this racial disparity may not be the result of racial bias in the decisionmaking process. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is a leader in efforts to reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in the Nation's juvenile justice system. It is a ratio of the rate of minority juvenile interaction with the justice system at a particular contact point as compared with white juveniles’ contact. The relative rate index is a commonly used metric nationally. Appendix I: Sample Relative Rate Index Analysis and Tracking Sheet .....57 Appendix J: 42 U.S.C. Appendices The materials that follow are intended to provide step by step instructions for completing the initial identification stage for examining Disproportionate Minority Contact within a jurisdiction. To calculate the RRI, the arrest rate for African-American youth is divided by the arrest rate for White youth. Once again, the disparities added at the petitioning decision point could be the result of several factors (e.g., differential severities in the nature of their crimes, differences in the youths’ prior delinquency histories, and/or decisionmaker bias); only further research can establish the most likely causes. It may also be that even when minority and white youth commit crimes at similar rates, the robbery crimes of minority youth are more likely to be reported to law enforcement, also resulting in a higher arrest rate. If the processing rate for one race/ethnic category of youth is identical to that of another, the relative rate index is a "1." The Relative Rate Index of the arrest decision point was significantly greater than 1.0 when comparing the overall minority arrest rate to that of white youth. Once states and localities have collected and utilized the Population at risk (age YY through XX ) 2. Once again, there could be many reasons for these racially-disparate decisions, factors that only additional research can identify. DEFINITIONS & SOURCES. plans, compliance and Relative Rate Index (RRI) data, and supporting documentation for the period October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017, electronically to OJJDP’s . For example, minority youth may commit robbery offenses at a greater rate than white youth, with the greater arrest rate simply reflecting these behavioral differences. Appendices An OJJDP Compliance Monitor explains the Juvenile Justice Reform Act mandate that states must have an "effective" system of monitoring compliance with the core requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. 5The national RRI of 0.9 reported in the National DMC Databook (http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/dmcdb/index.html), shows that with the exception of Asian, Hawaiian, or Paciic Islander youth, minority youth are not being diverted or probated relative to white youth. The relative rate index is a measure of disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile justice system. The arrest rate is calculated by dividing the number of arrests for each group by the population of that group. Advocates for Children and Youth. Only more targeted research can uncover the most likely causes. Where does my state rank on premature births? For information on the policy implications click here. The Relative Rate Index compares the arrest rate for White youth with the arrest rate for African-American youth. The petitioning decision maintained the level of racial disparity in the processing of robbery offense cases in 2010. “-” = Numbers too low to calculate rates. Cases Diverted 3.70 1.36 0.37 5. Using only data available for calculating the RRI, it is not possible to determine which or how much each of these factors contribute to racial disparities reflected by the RRIs at the arrest decision point. The arrest decision’s RRI is even greater (9.8) when comparing black youth to white youth. The Relative Rate Index is a means of comparing the rates of juvenile justice contact. For example, an RRI of 2.0 means that members of that group are two times more likely to be arrested than the total population. More from the State Relations … The Relative Rate Index Method (RRI) What does this mean? Download interpretations for all offenses [PDF]. Information gathered from the JCMSC is used to create the Relative Rate Index (RRI) Tables below. Some decisions (those with Relative Rate Indices greater than 1.0) increase disparity in the system. OJJDP’s guidelines state that when data are missing for analysis, “the rate [RRI] will be calculated on the 2 U.S. Department of Justice. The RRI provides a single index number that indicates whether there is disparity. Once petitioned, minority youth charged with a robbery offense in 2010 were somewhat less likely to be adjudicated than were white youth. The relative rate index (RRI)represents the relative volume of minority juveniles to the volume of majority juveniles (adjusted by population) at stages in the juvenile justice system. Minority youth referred to juvenile court for a robbery offense were equally likely to be processed formally (but less likely to be diverted from the formal court process) than were white youth referred to juvenile court. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) developed the relative rate index (RRI) to measure and monitor DMC at each of nine contact points in the juvenile justice system: 1) arrest; 2) referral to court; 3) diversion (includes informal probation); 4) secure detention; 5) charges (petition) filed; 6) found delinquent; 7) placed on formal probation; 8) placed in secure correctional facility; and … ” by race and ethnicity through the Relative rate Index compares the arrest rate is by. Formula that OJJDP uses, is one method of Tracking disparity “ ”. Yy through XX ) 2 system, at which decision points and compare processing “ rates ” by race ethnicity... 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